Epilepsy

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Epilepsy

Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that disturbs brain activity, resulting in seizures, unusual sensations, behavior, and even loss of consciousness occasionally. It can equally affect males and females of any race, ethnic background, and age.

Seizures are uncontrolled electrical bursts in the brain and having only one doesn’t mean you have epilepsy. However, experiencing two or more seizures at least 24 hours apart indicates it. Seizures can vary in different people. Some people simply stare blankly for a few moments during a seizure, while others frequently twitch their arms and legs.

Seizures are classified into two major types. They are named focal and generalized. Focal seizures occur as a result of abnormal activity in just one part of the brain. The generalized seizures appear as a result of abnormal activity in every part of the brain.

Symptoms

Seizures can affect your brain in different ways. This means that there is more than one symptom of epilepsy. In most cases, a person with epilepsy experiences the same kind of seizures every time.

Some signs of seizure include.

  • Confusion for a limited time.
  • A staring spell or absence seizure. It lasts for about 10 seconds and sometimes 20 seconds.
  • Stiff muscles.
  • Uncontrollable jerking of arms and legs.
  • Temporary loss of consciousness.
  • Psychological signs like fear, anxiety, etc.

What makes Seizures Serious

You should immediately consult with a good doctor if you are facing the following conditions.

  • Seizures that last for more than five minutes.
  • Breathing or consciousness does not recover once the seizure stops.
  • Experiencing a second seizure immediately after the first one ends.
  • You are pregnant.
  • You are a diabetic patient.
  • You have an injury after a seizure.
  • Your seizure does not go even after taking medicines.

Causes

There is no known cause of epilepsyin about half of the cases. The other half has several factors.

Genetics. Some seizures are categorized by their type or part of the brain that is affected. Such seizures can be transferred from one generation to another.

Researchers have created a link between some types of epilepsy with specific genes. However, for most people, genes are no more than a part of the cause of epilepsy.

Trauma. Head traumatic injuries received due to different reasons can result in epilepsy.

Brain Abnormalities. Brain abnormalities like brain tumors and vascular malformations can lead to epilepsy. Moreover, stroke is a leading cause of epilepsy in adults older than 35 years.

Infections. Infections like meningitis, HIV, and some parasitic infections can lead to epilepsy.

Prenatal Injury. Before birth, babies are more vulnerable to brain damage. These damages can be caused by infections, poor nutrition, or oxygen deficiencies. Brain damage by these factors can cause epilepsy.

Development Disorders. Development disorders like autism are often linked with epilepsy.

Consequences

A person with epilepsy has to face many complications in life. Some of them can be very dangerous and death-causing.

Falling. Seizures can paralyze your body, making it fall at any place. This can result in severe injuries.

Drowning. A person with epilepsy is at 13-19 times greater risk of drowning as compared to a normal person who knows how to swim. The possibility of having a seizure during swimming increases the risk of drowning.

Accidents. Seizures affect the consciousness of a person, resulting in a greater risk of road accidents.

Pregnancy Complications. During pregnancy, seizures impose danger to both, mother and baby. Moreover, certain medicines for seizures can increase the risk of birth defects.

Emotional Health Issues. People with epilepsy are more vulnerable to phycological issues. These issues include anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, and behaviors.

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