Protein Synthesis | Cells | Biology | FuseSchool

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Protein Synthesis | Cells | Biology | FuseSchool

Protein Synthesis | Cells | Biology | FuseSchool

Protein Synthesis | Cells | Biology | FuseSchool

Proteins are made of a long chain of amino acids, which has been coded for by DNA. The order of the bases of DNA determines which protein is made, by coding for a specific order of amino acids. This is protein synthesis, and in this video we are going to look at how it works. You may want to watch our ‘what is DNA’ video first to remind yourself all about DNA.

A set of three bases in the DNA molecule codes for a particular amino acid. GGT, for example, codes for the amino acid called Glycine. The 3 base codes are known as codons, so GGT is a “codon” for Glycine.

There are 20 amino acids that make up our body’s proteins. 9 of these we need to take in through our diet as our body cannot manufacture them. These are known as essential amino acids.
Our body can, however, manufacture non-essential amino acids. Whilst 20 amino acids build proteins, there are actually many others that do not form proteins, possibly over 250. They may form sugar, for example.

Before we start, you need to know what RNA is – so you may want to watch our ‘what is RNA’ video first.

The DNA is in the nucleus and cannot move, but the ribosomes in the cytoplasm are where the proteins are made. This means the code from the DNA needs to be copied and carried across to the ribosome by a molecule called messenger RNA or mRNA before the protein can be made. Let’s have a look at how this all works.

In the nucleus, the enzyme RNA polymerase unwinds and unzips the two strands of DNA that contain the protein-making gene. Only one of these strands is going to be replicated. Complementary RNA nucleotides base pair with the chosen strand. RNA polymerase also binds the RNA nucleotides together making a new RNA strand. This is the messenger RNA or mRNA. This process inside the nucleus is called transcription.

The mRNA travels from the cell nucleus and out into the cytoplasm, until it reaches and attaches to a ribosome. The ribosome then sticks amino acids together to make a polypeptide chain, following the order of amino acids as coded by the mRNA. Three base codons on the mRNA code for one amino acid. This process is called translation.

Let’s look at translation in a little more detail – what is actually happening inside the ribosome…

Transfer RNA or tRNA molecules, carrying specific amino acids, base pair with the mRNA inside the ribosome. So the tRNA brings in the amino acids and the mRNA provides the information of the exact order that the amino acids need to be bonded together in, to ensure the correct protein is made. As more tRNAs match up with the mRNA, the amino acid chain becomes longer. Eventually the polypeptide chain will form into the protein. So there we have protein synthesis.

Inside the nucleus, the DNA molecule is unzipped from around the gene by DNA polymerase. The DNA is replicated and mRNA is formed in the process of transcription. The mRNA travels out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm, where it binds with a ribosome. In the ribosome, the nucleotide sequence of the mRNA is translated by tRNA molecules which carry related amino acids. The polypeptide chain is formed, and will eventually fold into the required protein.


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Author Avatar


  • Posted on Oct 28, 2019 at 20:32 pm

    Omg I actually love you, you made it rlyyy easy to understand

  • Posted on Nov 16, 2019 at 17:56 pm

    Thank you very much lovely lady 😂 now I understand it ! 💖

  • Posted on Dec 06, 2019 at 01:38 am

    nigga what about rRNA?? y'all didn't mention that

  • Posted on Dec 20, 2019 at 14:15 pm


  • Posted on Jan 03, 2020 at 10:34 am

    beautiful way of explanation

  • Posted on Jan 08, 2020 at 15:41 pm

    ohh finally i get it

  • Posted on Jan 31, 2020 at 03:13 am

    Great Video really helped me study for my test

  • Posted on Mar 08, 2020 at 14:46 pm

    Please don't watch this video, it has missed some key points and is not chronological in explanation

  • Posted on Apr 02, 2020 at 18:14 pm
  • Posted on Apr 20, 2020 at 03:06 am

    This is very precise and on point for protein synthesis. The best video I have ever watched!! thank youu

  • Posted on May 20, 2020 at 04:29 am

    Is bases GGT codon or triplet? codon are found on mRNA which do not contain base thymine [T] instead it contain Uracil [U]

  • Posted on May 24, 2020 at 17:11 pm

    very good graphics

  • Posted on Jun 07, 2020 at 18:32 pm

    Very well explained! Thanks for the good sources

  • Posted on Jul 02, 2020 at 07:10 am

    Omgggg this is so smooth and so helpful thx alooot 😍❤️

  • Posted on Jul 07, 2020 at 09:56 am


  • Posted on Jul 13, 2020 at 13:12 pm

    Thank you so much for this!

  • Posted on Jul 13, 2020 at 15:23 pm

    When this video explains protein synthesis in 5 minutes better than my teacher in 50 minutes-

  • Posted on Jul 18, 2020 at 11:47 am

    i really like this voice
    i really like the graphics
    i really liked the video

  • Posted on Aug 06, 2020 at 16:39 pm

    This is such a brilliant video! Thank you!

  • Posted on Aug 07, 2020 at 01:40 am

    Made me understand better, thanks for the video!

  • Posted on Aug 10, 2020 at 06:25 am

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  • Posted on Sep 11, 2020 at 10:39 am

    A difficult topic explained wonderfully through an understandable video…great job FuseSchool!

  • Posted on Sep 19, 2020 at 18:42 pm

    Looks like candy crush 😍 TYTY for dumbing this all the way down for us normies. Brilliant 💓

  • Posted on Oct 09, 2020 at 08:09 am

    Thank for video great video thank you better than teacher #lol😜😁✌️👍

  • Posted on Nov 03, 2020 at 01:14 am

    BSM hadir

  • Posted on Nov 18, 2020 at 14:36 pm


  • Posted on Nov 24, 2020 at 11:19 am


  • Posted on Dec 24, 2020 at 13:21 pm

    are tRNA just floating around the cytoplasm waiting for translation?

  • Posted on Jan 18, 2021 at 03:34 am

    thanks a lot… you saved me

  • Posted on Feb 07, 2021 at 04:57 am

    After a long time i got a real image of this action….thank you so much ❤❤☺…i downloaded this viedo

  • Posted on Feb 10, 2021 at 11:35 am

    Can you please tell me the cases that the first amino acid doesn't start with methionine.
    I googled for it but I didn't find the answer.

  • Posted on Feb 14, 2021 at 11:49 am

    This video helped me understand the lesson thanks a lot

  • Posted on Mar 08, 2021 at 20:28 pm


  • Posted on Mar 31, 2021 at 17:51 pm

    That's a very nice video

  • Posted on May 06, 2021 at 13:34 pm

    di kasi kayo nakikinig andito tuloy kayo

  • Posted on Jul 03, 2021 at 12:59 pm

    This topic is the bane of my existence but thanks for the clear explanation! 🙃

  • Posted on Jul 05, 2021 at 10:17 am

    I cannot emphasize how much this video helped me, I have my final exam tomorrow and I never really understood protein synthesis from my teacher or our book and now I finally get it. This video was so helpful and informative.

  • Posted on Nov 18, 2021 at 07:07 am

    thank you so much …you save me cuz i have a report and its all about protein synthesis omg thank youuuu

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