What Are Chromosomes | Genetics | Biology | FuseSchool

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What Are Chromosomes | Genetics | Biology | FuseSchool

What Are Chromosomes | Genetics | Biology | FuseSchool

In the nucleus of each eukaryotic cell, the DNA is packaged together into chromosomes.

Each chromosome is made up of DNA that is tightly coiled around proteins that give it the structure.

Chromosomes usually occur in pairs, except for gametes (eggs and sperm cells) but the number of chromosomes changes depending upon species. Humans have 23 pairs, elephants have 28 pairs and carrot plants have 9 pairs.

Chromosomes are made from long, coiled molecules of DNA known as a double helix. Within this long chain, there are shorter regions that carry the genetic code for particular proteins that are known as genes.

Chromosomes carry all of the information that help a cell grow, survive and reproduce.

Each chromosome has a centromere, which divides the chromosome into 2 sections, or arms. The location of the centromere on each chromosome is what gives it it’s characteristic shape. The p arm are the short arms, and the q arms are the long arm structure.

Chromosomes are made up of DNA and proteins – with the DNA being coiled around the histone proteins that support the structure.

Chromosomes are passed from parents to offspring, and play an important role that ensures DNA is copied and distributed accurately in the process of cell division.

Chromosomes are not usually visible in the cell’s nucleus, and can only be seen when the cell is dividing. During cell division, the chromosomes are duplicated. We will look at this in more detail in future videos, such as ‘what is mitosis’. When the chromosomes are duplicated, they condense into short structures which can then be stained and observed under a microscope. The centromere holds the duplicated chromosomes together. Duplicated chromosomes are commonly called sister chromatids. Note that one chromosome is just one half, but the X-shape is that duplicated chromosome joined at the centromere.

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  • Posted on Dec 22, 2016 at 20:06 pm

    thank you!

  • Posted on Dec 22, 2016 at 23:53 pm

    merry christmas

  • Posted on Dec 23, 2016 at 02:25 am


  • Posted on Feb 12, 2018 at 08:43 am

    Hello.. by what program or website these great videos of yours are made??Thankss

  • Posted on Mar 17, 2018 at 15:58 pm

    I want to know how the chromosoms are formed

  • Posted on Mar 18, 2018 at 14:16 pm

    thank you best content

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    this is epic

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    i woke up to early to be watching australian biology.

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  • Posted on Mar 02, 2021 at 08:58 am


  • Posted on Mar 15, 2021 at 21:04 pm

    I remember doing a science project

  • Posted on Apr 27, 2021 at 14:49 pm

    Thank you!

  • Posted on Jun 11, 2021 at 02:40 am

    did you know that all 46 human chromosomes weigh 240 picograms in total? 🙂

  • Posted on Aug 24, 2021 at 09:09 am

    So we are basically living codes?

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